Here we discuss options for providing power to the circuit itself.
The input from the renewable energy source will be variable and the input voltage will vary. We need to provide power to the microcontroller ‘brains’ of the device. This requires 5V DC. Hence we need to efficiently step down the voltage from the input to 5V.
Power supply specifications
Power supply voltage
The microcontroller and control components all work at 5V dc, but the incoming voltage could be anywhere from 8V to 32V dc (for a 24V battery bank). So we need to step down the variable input voltage to the required 5V.
Power supply current
The microcontroller is low power but still consumes some current. With the MOSFET being driven and the LEDs all at 100% the total current consumed is around 30mA. Power = V * I, so at 5V the power consumption of the circuit is 5 x 0.03 = 0.15W max. The vast majority of the time the current required by the microcontroller is lower, around 5-10mA.
The quiescent current is how much current the power supply uses when it is not providing any useful output power. The power supply itself will consume a small amount of current for its own operation. We need to ensure that this value is as low as possible to ensure a high efficiency.
We could use a linear converter, such as the classic 7805 IC. Linear power supplies step down the voltage by dissipating excess power as heat. The current rating of the output is the current rating of the input. For example: if an output of 100mA at 5V is required, then the input will be the input voltage with the same current (for example 24V at 100mA).
In this example the power dissipated is (24V-5V)*100mA = 1.9W. That makes the efficiency of the power supply to be just 20% of the power in is used as useful power out.
If we keep the input current very low then we can use a linear converter. For example if we are drawing just 1mA in the above example the we are just dissipating 0.019W, although the efficiency is the same.
Linear converter ICs
Here are some available linear converter ICs. These are all through hole devices.
- Available in output currents up to 1A.
- Short circuit protection.
- Low cost and readily available
- Quiescent current = 5-8mA at 25C = TOO HIGH
- V max = 35V
- 100mA max output current.
- Protected from revers connection and voltage spikes
- Low drop out (can be used with low input voltages from 6V)
- Quiescent current < 1mA when supplying 10mA.
- Vmax = 33V
- 100mA max output current.
- Low drop out
- Quiescent current 75uA typical
- Vmax = 30V = TOO LOW
- 100mA max output current.
- Low drop out
- Quiescent current 0.5mA.
- Vmax = 20V = TOO LOW
We could also use other techniques to convert the voltage, such as DC to DC conversion, which has the potential to be more efficient.
DC to DC conversion
DC to DC conversion uses some form of switching element to convert from one DC level to another. While more complex, they have the potential to be more efficient as a converter, especially at higher input voltages.
There is an interesting application note on DC-DC converter topolgies from Maxim here (Tutorial 660).
A review of available DC-DC converter designs shows the following as suitable for this application. We need an input voltage of up to 60Vdc (for a fully charged 48V lead acid battery Note: this was the initial design specification, this has since been reduced to 32V DC). The current consumption of the circuit is in the region of 100mA maximum (this needs to be tested and checked), so we must supply 100mA. The DC-DC converter will always step-down (also called a buck converter). Another factor is cost – I am trying to keep the circuit easy to build and inexpensive. Here we review some available ICs which can perform this function and application notes which might be useful. Texas Instruments/National Semiconductors has a design calculator for DC-DC converters available here. This suggested designs based upon LM5574, LM5010A, LM34923 which gave efficiencies greater than 70%.
- LM5017 – Texas Instruments – Not available RS or Farnell – Looks pretty perfect, but not in full production yet.
- LM5574 – Texas Instruments – £3.16 from RS
- LM5010A – Texas Instruments – £3.87 from RS
- LM34923 – Texas Instruments – Not available from RS
- AS7620 – Austria Microsystems – £1.96 from RS – only up to 32V,
- LT1111 – Linear Technology – £5.40 from RS – Only 32V, 3 additional components required, through-hole version available
- LM2596 – National Semiconductors – £4.38 from RS – 37V maximum, 15V min input required for 5V out, through-hole available
- MC34166 – ON Semiconductor – £1.34 from Farnell – 40V maximum, 3A output
- LT1076 – Linear Technology – £6.93 from RS – -40V working range, 2A output
- SI8050 – Allegro Sanken – £1.91 from Farnell – 42V max, 3A output
- LM2674 – National Semiconductor – £3.06 from RS – 8-40V range, 0.8A output, through-hole package
- LM2574 – National Semiconductor – £1.93 from Farnell – 40V max or 60V max for HV version, 0.5A, through-hole,
- LM2575 – ON Semiconductor – £1.58 from Farnell – 40V max, 1A output
- MIC4680 – Micrel Semiconductor – £1.93 from Farnel – 34V max, 1.3A output
- LM22674 – ON Cemiconductor – £2.76 from Farnell – 42V max, SMD device, 0.5A output
- LMR16006 – Texas Instruments – £2.49 from RS – 60V Max, 6 pin SOT SMD device, 0.5A output
(Note: Prices checked on 7/2/12, they might not be accurate when you read this)
As you can see there are lots of solutions. The main limiting factor is the high input voltage requirement to run this circuit up to 60V DC. There are only a few options when this is factored in.
The final circuit board will be designed in such that either a ‘standard’ 7805 linear regulator or the efficient high-voltage DC-DC converter circuit can be used. This might take up a bit more PCB area but allows people to easily get started with no hard-to-source components, but then it can be upgraded to use the converter circuit.
The voltage regulator prototype chosen was a switching regulator based upon the LM2574 0.5A step-down switching regulator. As mentioned before linear regulators are not an efficient way of regulating voltage as they must dissipate any excess voltage drop at the supply current (volts x amps = power) and hence they get hot. This IC comes in two versions, the normal one for up to 40V operation and a high voltage version for up to 60V operation (but costing twice the price). I used the standard configuration circuit for a 5V supply (please check the datasheet). It required 2 capacitors, an inductor and a diode. The total cost of these parts is around £2.50. A bit more information on voltage regulation is on another blog post here.
(1) The parts: LM2574 IC, IC holder, 300uH inductor, 22uF and 220uF capacitor and 1N5819 diode. (2) The completed 7-40V input, 5V output efficient voltage regulator.
The circuit diagram is here:
This was tested at 30V with a 5V 100mA load. The input current was around 20mA (not accurately measured) so the efficiency was:
Power in = 30V x 0.02A = 0.6W
Power out = 5V x 0.1A = 0.5W
Therefore efficiency is around 0.5/0.6 x 100 = 83%, which is pretty good and certainly better than the 20% efficiency that a linear regulator would have.
The main disadvantages of this are the cost of components, the complexity of the circuit and the use of specialist components.
The final prototype design uses the LM2931 linear converter. This was chosen as it was low cost, had the correct voltage and current ratings and had relatively low quiescent current. This can be replaced by any of the ICs above, if this particular device is not available locally.
To ensure that the circuit is efficient, we must also pay attention to the power consumed by the microcontroller.
UPDATE (5/4/2017): The problem with the LM2931 Linear regulator is that it gets very hot when running any kind of load. It is not suitable for our 60V input specification.
Final design for open-charge regulator
In the end we have chosen the LMR16006 from Texas Instruments to provide 10V for the gate drive circuitry, alongside a low drop out 5V linear converter to give local 5V from the 10V input. The LMR16006 is a switching regulator designed for automotive use with a max input of 60V alongside protection from transients. It has a very low quiescent current of just 28uA when in ECO mode. So when the regulator is not doing anything there will be very little power draw.
This design uses the surface mount component which is a shame as all the other components are through-hole. This component also requires external components including a diode, and inductor and feedback resistor network.
The 10V to 5V LDO is a MCP1702-50 from Microchip Technologies. This can supply up to 250mA, has a low quiescent current and a low input voltage range. This has been used in many circuits before and is a reliable component.